Study reveals epilepsy drug exposure in womb is linked to poorer school test

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New study reveals that epilepsy drug exposure in womb is linked to significantly poorer school test results

Researchers from the Neurology Research Group in the Swansea University Medical School found that exposure to epilepsy drugs in the womb is linked to significantly poorer school test results among 7 year olds.

The research published recently online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry recommends that mums-to-be need to be fully informed of the risks of treatment, but these should be weighed against the need for effective seizure control during pregnancy, say the researchers.

Women with epilepsy who need drugs to control their seizures are currently advised to continue taking them during pregnancy because convulsions can harm both mother and the unborn child.

Several studies indicate that epilepsy drugs, particularly sodium valproate, taken during pregnancy, are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, but few of these studies have been based on real-life population circumstances (population data).

To address this, the researchers from the Neurology Research Group in Swansea University Medical School used routinely-collected healthcare data from the Secure Anonymous Information Linkage (SAIL) databank and national school test (key stage 1) data to compare the academic performance of 7 year olds in Wales born to mothers with epilepsy. SAIL contains the anonymised primary care health records of 80 percent of Welsh family doctors, corresponding to around 77 percent of the Welsh population (2.3 million people).

The Key Stage 1 (KS1) test assesses maths, language (English/Welsh) and science among 7 year olds, scoring them from levels 1 to 3. Test results were available for 440 children whose mums had been diagnosed with epilepsy before their pregnancy for 2003 through to 2008.

Prescription patterns were divided into five categories: treatment with one drug (carbamazepine, lamotrigine or sodium valproate); a combination of several drugs; and no drug treatment. Twenty (54%) of the 39 mums prescribed several drugs were taking sodium valproate, but there were 15 different drug combinations in all.

The results showed that children born to mums who had been prescribed carbamazepine or lamotrigine, or nothing, performed just as well as those born to mums of the same age and deprivation level, but without epilepsy (comparison group).

But those whose mums had been prescribed sodium valproate during their pregnancy performed 10.5 – 13 per cent less well on all KSI tests than those in the comparison group. Children born to mums who had been prescribed a combination of epilepsy drugs achieved worse results still. Their scores were 19-22% lower. Also, excluding children with epilepsy and whose mothers smoked from the analysis didn't materially change the results.

The researchers acknowledge that they weren't able to account for certain potentially influential factors, such as the mothers' IQ, weight or alcohol consumption; the doses of epilepsy drugs prescribed; or intake of folic acid around conception.

But their results echo those of other independent studies, they point out.

Professor Mark Rees, Professor of Neurology and Molecular Neuroscience Research said "While this study highlights the risk of cognitive effects in the children of mothers prescribed sodium valproate or multiple [anti-epilepsy drugs], it is important to acknowledge that some epilepsies are difficult to manage without these treatment regimens."

Dr Owen Pickrell, leader of the SAIL neurology team added "Women with epilepsy should be informed of this risk and alternative treatment regimens should be discussed before their pregnancy with a physician that specialises in epilepsy."

In a linked commentary of the study, Dr Richard Chin of the University of Edinburgh's Muir Maxwell Epilepsy Centre, emphasises the importance of a study that is based on population data as this can be used to inform preventive/interventional strategies and help women to better understand the implications of epilepsy treatment while pregnant.

"By providing 'functional' outcome data from their study, the authors have now provided information that prospective parents may find readily tangible: it should be included in information given to women with epilepsy prior to pregnancy," he advocates.

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Notes for editors

* The research paper: Educational attainment of children born to mothers with epilepsy doi 10.1136/jnnp-2017-317515 is available online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. Link: http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/early/2018/03/12/jnnp-2017-317515

* Swansea University Medical School is a UK top-ten Medical School offering a comprehensive portfolio of undergraduate and postgraduate courses spanning medicine, physician associate studies, health and life sciences to meet tomorrow's science and healthcare challenges. Since its beginnings as a newly established Medical School in 2004, it has seen exceptional development from the growth of its Graduate Entry Medicine (GEM) programme to building Wales' premier health and life sciences research facilities in the Institute of Life Science (ILS), Centre for NanoHealth and Data Science Building.

2014 saw the Research Excellence Framework place Swansea University Medical School equal first in the UK for the quality of its research environment and second for overall research quality. In 2016, it became the first department in Swansea University to win Athena SWAN Silver recognition for its work to promote women in science careers. These developments together with significant investment from external funding organisations, and rising student satisfaction have led to the Medical School rising to third in the UK in the Complete University Guide 2017 and to UK top ten rankings in a range of in other independent guides.

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* Swansea University is a world-class, research-led, dual campus university. The University was established in 1920 and was the first campus university in the UK. It currently offers around 350 undergraduate courses and 350 postgraduate courses to circa 20,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students.

The University's 46-acre Singleton Park Campus is located in beautiful parkland with views across Swansea Bay. The University's 65-acre science and innovation Bay Campus, which opened in September 2015, is located a few miles away on the eastern approach to the city. It has the distinction of having direct access to a beach and its own seafront promenade. Both campuses are close to the Gower Peninsula, the UK's first Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

In 2017, Swansea University became the top university in Wales in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide league table, and also won the inaugural Welsh University of the Year title.

It is also ranked within the top 300 best universities in the world in the Times Higher Education World University rankings.

The results of the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014 showed the University has achieved its ambition to be a top 30 research University, soaring up the league table to 26th in the UK, with the 'biggest leap among research-intensive institutions' (Times Higher Education, December 2014) in the UK.

The University has ambitious expansion plans as it moves towards its centenary in 2020, as it continues to extend its global reach and realising its domestic and international ambitions. Swansea University is a registered charity. No.1138342. Visit http://www.swansea.ac.uk

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Related Journal Article

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2017-317515

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