Researchers explore what's behind Mediterranean diet and lower cardiovascular risk
Investigators identify, assess underlying mechanisms that may explain diet’s 25 percent reduction in cardiovascular risk for American women
A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health offers insights from a cohort study of women in the U.S. who reported consuming a Mediterranean-type diet. Researchers found a 25 percent reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease among study participants who consumed a diet rich in plants and olive oil and low in meats and sweets. The team also explored why and how a Mediterranean diet might mitigate risk of heart disease and stroke by examining a panel of 40 biomarkers, representing new and established biological contributors to heart disease. The team’s results are published in JAMA Network Open.
“Our study has a strong public health message that modest changes in known cardiovascular disease risk factors, particularly those relating to inflammation, glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, contribute to the long-term benefit of a Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular disease risk. This understanding may have important downstream consequences for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease,” said lead author Shafqat Ahmad, PhD, a research fellow at the Brigham and at the Harvard Chan School.
Randomized trials in Mediterranean countries and observational studies have previously linked a Mediterranean diet to reductions in cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. The current research draws on data from more than 25,000 female health professionals who participated in the Women’s Health Study. Participants completed food intake questionnaires about diet, provided blood samples for measuring the biomarkers, and were followed for up to 12 years. The primary outcomes analyzed in the study were incidences of cardiovascular disease, defined as first events of heart attack, stroke, coronary arterial revascularization and cardiovascular death.
The team categorized study participants as having a low, middle or upper Mediterranean diet intake. They found that 428 (4.2 percent) of the women in the low group experienced a cardiovascular event compared to 356 (3.8 percent) in the middle group and 246 (3.8 percent) in the upper group, representing a relative risk reduction of 23 percent and 28 percent respectively, a benefit that is similar in magnitude to statins or other preventive medications
The team saw changes in signals of inflammation (accounting for 29 percent of the cardiovascular disease risk reduction), glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (27.9 percent), and body max index (27.3 percent). The team also found connections to blood pressure, various forms of cholesterol, branch-chain amino acids and other biomarkers, but found that these accounted for less of the association between Mediterranean diet and risk reduction.
“While prior studies have shown benefit for the Mediterranean diet on reducing cardiovascular events and improving cardiovascular risk factors, it has been a black box regarding the extent to which improvements in known and novel risk factors contribute to these effects,” said corresponding author Samia Mora, MD, MHS, a cardiovascular medicine specialist at the Brigham and Harvard Medical School. “In this large study, we found that modest differences in biomarkers contributed in a multi-factorial way to this cardiovascular benefit that was seen over the long term.”
The Women’s Health Study is supported by National Institutes of Health grants (CA047988, HL043851, HL080467, HL099355, and UM1 CA182913). Mora was supported by the research grants DK112940, HL134811 and HL136852, American Heart Association (0670007N) and the Molino Family Trust. LabCorp provided the LipoProfile IV results. Ahmad was supported through a fellowship and research support from Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Nutricia Research Foundation and Henning och Johan Throne-Holst stiftelse Fellowship Sweden. Other co-authors were supported by grants K01HL135342-02, HL60712, HL118264, and DK112940 from the National Institutes of Health.
Mora disclosed receiving institutional research grant support from Atherotech Diagnostics for research outside the current work, served as a consultant/scientific advisory board to Quest Diagnostics, and has a patent regarding the use of GlycA in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Another co-author received research grant support from AstraZeneca, Novartis, Amgen, P?zer, and NHLBI, and is listed as a coinventor on patents held by the Brigham and Women’s Hospital related to the use of in?ammatory biomarkers in CVD (licensed to AstraZeneca and Siemens). Another co-author reported receiving research support from the California Walnut Commission and honoraria for lectures from Metagenics and Standard Process and honoraria from Diet Quality Photo Navigation, outside the submitted work.
Paper cited: Ahmad, S et al. “Assessment of Risk Factors and Biomarkers Associated With Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Women Consuming a Mediterranean Diet” JAMA Network Open DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.5708