Cardiac glycosides suppress the unfolded protein response
Credit: © Muneshige Tokugawa
In the present study, Dr. Hidetoshi Hayashi (Professor, Nagoya City University) and collaborators screened small-molecule compounds that suppress UPR, using Myanmar wild plant extracts library. The screening system to track X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) splicing activity revealed that the ethanol extract of the Periploca calophylla stem inhibited the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-XBP1 pathway. They isolated and identified periplocin as a potent inhibitor of the IRE1-XBP1 axis. Periplocin also suppressed other UPR axes, protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Examining the structure-activity relationship of periplocin revealed that cardiac glycosides, basically used for cardiac insufficiency therapy, also inhibited UPR. Moreover, periplocin suppressed the constitutive activation of XBP1 and exerted cytotoxic effects in the human multiple myeloma cell lines, AMO1 and RPMI8226. These results reveal a novel suppressive effect of periplocin or the other cardiac glycosides on UPR regulation, suggesting that these compounds will contribute to the understanding of the pathological or physiological importance of UPR signaling.
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