Obesity embargo alert for September 2019

All print, broadcast and online journalists who receive the Obesity embargo alert agree to abide by the embargo and may not publish, post, broadcast or distribute embargoed news releases or details of the embargoed studies before the embargo date and time.

When writing about these studies, journalists are asked to attribute the source as the journal Obesity and to include the online link to the Obesity articles as provided below. Links become active when articles post at 3:00 a.m. (EDT) on Aug. 23, 2019.

About the journal – Obesity is the peer-reviewed, scientific journal of The Obesity Society.

Editors’ Choice 1 – Mitigating Cardiometabolic Risks with Brief Interruptions of Sitting, Robyn Larsen, robyn.larsen@baker.edu.au, Hamza Ali, Paddy C. Dempsey, Megan Grace, Francis Dillon, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Neale Cohen, Neville Owen, Daniel J. Green, and David W. Dunstan
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.22554)

Editors’ Choice 2 – Community Diffusion Strategies are Key Driver of Pediatric Program, Matt Kasman, Ross A. Hammond, Benjamin Heuberger, bheuberger@brookings.edu, Austen Mack-Crane, Rob Purcell, Christina Economos, Boyd Swinburn, Steven Allender, and Melanie Nichols
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.22553)

Editors’ Choice 3 – Salivary Amylase Gene Copy Number and BMI: No Association Found, Nzar A. A. Shwan and John A. L. Armour, john.armour@nottingham.ac.uk
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.22565)

Editors’ Choice 4 – Does Psychiatric Medication Use Reduce Weight Loss Outcomes?, Sean Wharton, Jennifer L. Kuk, Lana Petrova, Peter I. Rye, Valerie H. Taylor, and Rebecca A.G. Christensen, christensen@mail.utoronto.ca
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.22567)

Scroll down to find abstracts for each of the above papers. To request the full text of any of these studies and agree to the embargo policy, or to arrange an interview with a study’s author or an obesity expert, please contact communications@obesity.org.

Editors’ Choice Abstracts

Editors’ Choice 1 – Interrupting Sitting Time with Simple Resistance Activities Lowers Postprandial Insulinemia in Adults with Overweight or Obesity

Objective: This study aimed to examine the effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses of interrupting sitting time with brief bouts of simple resistance activities (SRAs) in adults with overweight or obesity.

Methods: Participants (n = 19) were recruited for a randomized crossover trial involving the following two 6-hour conditions: (1) uninterrupted sitting or (2) sitting with 3-minute bouts of SRAs (half-squats, calf raises, gluteal contractions, and knee raises) every 30 minutes (total duration = 27 minutes). Incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) for glucose, insulin, and insulin:glucose ratio were analyzed as pre-specified secondary outcomes using mixed-effects log-linear regression adjusted for sex, BMI, treatment order, and pre-prandial values. Results are reported as multiplicative change (exponentiated coefficient [EC] with 95% CI) relative to the control condition.

Results: Glucose iAUC during the SRA condition was not significantly different from the prolonged sitting condition (EC = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.73-1.16; P = 0.43). However, SRAs lowered the postprandial insulin response by 26% (EC = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.64-0.85; P

Conclusions: In adults with overweight or obesity, frequent interruptions to sitting time with SRAs lowered postprandial insulin responses and insulin:glucose. These findings may have implications for mitigating cardiometabolic risk in adults with overweight or obesity who engage in prolonged periods of sitting.

Editors’ Choice 2 – Activating a Community: An Agent-Based Model of Romp & Chomp, a Whole-of-Community Childhood Obesity Intervention

Objective: Successful whole-of-community childhood obesity prevention interventions tend to involve community stakeholders in spreading knowledge about and engagement with obesity prevention efforts through the community. This process is referred to by the authors as stakeholder-driven community diffusion (SDCD). This study uses an agent-based model in conjunction with intervention data to increase understanding of how SDCD operates.

Methods: This agent-based model retrospectively simulated SDCD during Romp & Chomp, a 4-year whole-of-community childhood obesity prevention intervention in Victoria, Australia. Stakeholder survey data, intervention records, and expert estimates were used to parameterize the model. Model output was evaluated against criteria derived from empirical data and experts’ estimates of the magnitude and timing of community knowledge and engagement change.

Results: The model was able to produce outputs that met the evaluation criteria: increases in simulated community knowledge and engagement driven by SDCD closely matched expert estimates of magnitude and timing.

Conclusions: Strong suggestive evidence was found in support of a hypothesis that SDCD was a key driver of the success of the Romp & Chomp intervention. Model exploration also provided additional insights about these processes (including where additional data collection might prove most beneficial), as well as implications for the design and implementation of future interventions.

Editors’ Choice 3 – No Evidence for Association of BMI with Salivary Amylase Gene Copy Number in the UK 1958 Birth Cohort

Objective: In a 2014 publication, evidence was presented supporting the association of BMI with the copy number of the salivary amylase 1 (AMY1) gene, with an unprecedented effect size of -0.15 kg/m2 (SE 0.02) per copy of AMY1. Most well-powered attempts to reproduce these findings have not been successful. However, because of different study designs, a significant association may still apply under restricted conditions such as in particular age groups. This study specifically tested the BMI-AMY1 association at different age points in the same individuals using longitudinal BMI information from participants in the UK 1958 Birth Cohort study.

Methods: This study measured the AMY1 copy number by paralogue ratio tests in genomic DNA and by using array comparative genomic hybridization data. BMI data from 1958 Birth Cohort participants were available from eight different age points between 7 and 50 years.

Results: No evidence, even at nominal significance, was found for association of the AMY1 copy number with BMI at any age point in approximately 1,400 members of the 1958 Birth Cohort or in 2,835 people from two disease cohorts from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium.

Conclusions: The results do not support an association between BMI and AMY1 copy number at any age point.

Editors’ Choice 4 – Effectiveness of a Community-Based Weight Management Program for Patients Taking Antidepressants and/or Antipsychotics

Objective: This study aimed to compare weight loss (WL) outcomes for patients taking antidepressants and/or antipsychotics with those not taking psychiatric medication.

Methods: A total of 17,519 adults enrolled in a lifestyle WL intervention at the Wharton Medical Clinics in Ontario, Canada, were analyzed. Sex-stratified multivariable linear regression analysis was used to examine the association of taking anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, both, or neither with WL when adjusting for age, initial weight, and treatment time.

Results: Twenty-three percent of patients were taking at least one psychiatric medication. Patients lost a significant amount of weight (P 0.05). Conversely, men taking antidepressants lost only slightly less weight than men taking both classes or neither class of psychiatric medication (3.2 ± 0.3 kg vs. 5.6 ± 0.9 kg and 4.3 ± 0.1 kg; P 0.05).

Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that those who participate in a weight management program can lose significant amounts of weight regardless of psychiatric medication use.

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