WASHINGTON, D.C., May 24, 2016 – A dolphin chasing a tasty fish will produce a stream of rapid-fire echolocation clicks that help it track the speed, direction and distance to its prey. Now researchers have developed a model that could yield new insights into how the charismatic marine mammals make these clicks – and it turns out snot may play an important role.
The researchers will present their model at the 171st meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, held May 23-27 in Salt Lake City.
"It's harder than you might think to make loud, high frequency sounds," said Aaron Thode, a research scientist at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego. "Wet, sticky surfaces could serve a purpose in this."
Most scientists believe dolphins create sound by forcing air through nasal passages located just beneath their blowholes. Within the nasal passage are lumps of tissue, called dorsal bursae, that collide and vibrate, producing the dolphin's repertoire of clicks, chirps and whistles. Yet the finer details of what happens in the nasal passages remain murky.
It's difficult to film a dolphin's working nasal passages, Thode said, and many of the motions happen as quickly as a thousand times per second, making it hard to measure them. In place of direct observation, Thode turned to a lumped element model – commonly used by engineers and scientists to simplify complicated systems.
While looking through the scientific literature on the human voice, Thode found a lumped element model for vocal cords. The model represents the vocal cords as discrete masses connected by springs, which store and release energy, and dampers, which dissipate energy. The model captures essential characteristics of the system, like the frequency at which it vibrates, while remaining simple enough to easily solve.
Thode worked with his father, Lester Thode, a retired physicist from Los Alamos National Laboratory, to adapt the vocal cord model to dolphin nasal passages. The researchers compared their model's simulated clicks to recordings of real dolphin clicks that had been gathered by their colleagues at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology and the Navy Marine Mammal Program.
The model accurately reproduced two distinct parts of a dolphin click: an initial loud thump, followed by an extended ring. It suggests the thump is caused when the dorsal bursae collide and then pull apart, and the ring develops from the lingering vibrations of the tissue.
What's more, the bursae must stick slightly to each other before separating in order to produce the loudest, highest frequency parts of the call.
Thode describes the required motion as "kind of like pulling apart silly putty – if you pull it hard it will resist, but then snap apart." The researchers think the mucus coating of the nasal passage could provide this stick-and-snap motion.
The model can produce whistles, click trains and individual clicks. It can also reproduce "weird" clicks, where the thump and ring seem to occur at the same time, and shows a similar statistical correlation between peak frequency and power as observed in real click data.
The agreement between real and simulated clicks is encouraging, but the researchers caution the model is still under development.
"Others could create a different model that also matches the data," Lester Thode said.
Going forward, the father and son team hope to get more dolphin recordings so they can see if additional predictions made by the model – such as the timing patterns of click bursts – also show up in real life.
The model could potentially inspire human engineers looking for clever new ways to create high-frequency sounds. It could also yield insights into how other animals, such as whales, vocalize, Aaron Thode said.
Presentation 2pABa3, "There must be mucus: Using a lumped-parameter model to simulate the "thump" and "ring" of a bottlenose dolphin echolocation click," by Lester Thode will take place at 1:30 p.m. MDT on Tuesday, May 24 in Salon 1. The abstract can be found by searching for the presentation number here: http://acousticalsociety.org/content/spring-meeting-itinerary-planner
ABOUT THE MEETING
The 171st Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) will be held May 23-27, 2016, at the Salt Lake Marriott Downtown at City Creek Hotel. It will feature more than 900 presentations on sound and its applications in physics, engineering, music, architecture and medicine. Reporters are invited to cover the meeting remotely or attend in person for free.
Main meeting website: http://acousticalsociety.org/content/spring-2016-meeting
Itinerary planner and technical program:
WORLD WIDE PRESS ROOM
In the coming weeks, ASA's World Wide Press Room will be updated with additional tips on dozens of newsworthy stories and with lay-language papers, which are 400-900 word summaries of presentations written by scientists for a general audience and accompanied by photos, audio, and video. You can visit the site, beginning in early May, at (http://acoustics.org/current-meeting).
We will grant free registration to credentialed journalists and professional freelance journalists. If you are a reporter and would like to attend, contact John Arnst ([email protected], 301-209-3096) who can also help with setting up interviews and obtaining images, sound clips, or background information.
LIVE MEDIA WEBCAST
A press briefing featuring a selection of newsworthy research will be webcast live from the conference on Tuesday, May 24. Topics and time of webcast to be announced.
ABOUT THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA
The Acoustical Society of America (ASA) is the premier international scientific society in acoustics devoted to the science and technology of sound. Its 7,000 members worldwide represent a broad spectrum of the study of acoustics. ASA publications include The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (the world's leading journal on acoustics), Acoustics Today magazine, books, and standards on acoustics. The society also holds two major scientific meetings each year. For more information about ASA, visit our website at http://www.acousticalsociety.org.
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