Human brain clocks exposed: Effects of circadian clocks and sleep loss vary across brain regions, new study finds
- New study helps us to understand how the brain maintains performance during the day; why many symptoms in psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions wax and wane, and why we should avoid long drawn out negotiations into the night
- New findings show that the timing of brain imaging-assessed peak activity varies with brain region and that different brain regions are differentially affected by sleep loss and internal time of day (i.e. circadian rhythms)
- Research has significant implications for our understanding of how the brain is locally affected by internal time of day and sleep-wake cycles. Results shed light on why shift workers and people working very long hours struggle to pay attention and concentrate on their job, in particular in the early morning hours
Ever wondered what happens inside your brain when you stay awake for a day, a night and another day, before you finally go to sleep? In a new study published today in the journal Science, a team of researchers from the University of Liege and the University of Surrey have scanned the brains of 33 participants across such a 2-day sleep deprivation period and following recovery sleep. Activity in several brain regions, and in particular subcortical areas, followed a 24-hour rhythmic (circadian) pattern the timing of which, surprisingly, varied across brain regions.
Other brain regions, in particular frontal brain areas, showed a reduction in activity with time awake followed by a return to pre-sleep-deprivation levels after recovery sleep. Some brain regions displayed a pattern which was a combination of a rhythmic pattern and a decline associated with time awake.
Even more surprising, the researchers discovered that these effects of sleep loss on brain activity were much more widespread when the participants performed a simple (reaction time) task compared to a more complex memory-reliant task.
In each participant 13 brain scans were obtained: 12 during the sleep deprivation period and one following recovery sleep. The data were aligned with the melatonin rhythm which is a hormonal marker of the human brain circadian pacemaker, i.e. a marker of brain time.
This variety in brain responses and the prominent circadian rhythm component shed new light on the complexity of the mechanisms by which the brain responds to sleep loss. It also shows that the time of day at which we scan the brain has a prominent effect on the picture we get.
Behavioural observations have long suggested that brain function is influenced by the duration of wakefulness and the biological time of day (circadian rhythmicity). During a period of sleep deprivation performance does not deteriorate linearly with time awake. It remains constant during the day, rapidly deteriorates during the biological night and then slightly improves the next day.
The current findings demonstrate that these two processes and this time course can also be detected at the level of brain responses as assessed by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fmRI) which provides measures of brain activity. In addition they show that the relative contribution of sleep loss and time of day effects varies across brain regions.
Professor Derk-Jan Dijk from the University of Surrey said: "It is very gratifying to see directly at the level of fMRI-detected brain responses that circadian rhythmicity and lack of sleep both have such a profound influence on brain function.
"Our data may ultimately help us to better understand how the brain maintains performance during the day, why many symptoms in psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions wax and wane, and why in the early morning after a night without sleep we struggle to maintain attention, whereas in the evening it is not an issue."
Vincenzo Muto from the University of Liege said: "Our data highlights the complex interaction between our biological clock and time spent awake at a regional brain level: extremely intriguing!"
Pierre Maquet from the University of Liege added: "These results suggest the fascinating hypothesis that brain function is continuously modulated by two factors that are both globally expressed but locally modulated : sleep pressure and circadian rhythmicity."
Media enquiries: Peter La, Media Relations Office at the University of Surrey, Tel: 01483 689191 or E-mail: [email protected]
Notes to Editors:
About the University of Surrey
The University of Surrey is one of the UK's top higher education institutions and was recognised as the University of the Year in The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2016. With 125 years of academic heritage since our founding in Battersea, and 50 years of world-class teaching and research in Guildford, the University of Surrey is the intellectual home for more than 15,200 students, 100,000 alumni and 2,800 staff.
Freedom of thought, pursuit of academic excellence, and the advancement and application of knowledge underpin the wonderful things happening here. Our mission is to transform lives and enrich society through outstanding teaching and learning, pioneering research and impactful innovation.
The University of Surrey has been recognised by three Queen's Anniversary Prizes for Further and Higher Education and is a destination of choice for higher learning in subjects ranging from Engineering to the Arts. As a global university, we are proud of our strong partnerships with internationally leading institutions and businesses, while being firmly engaged with our local community in Guildford and Surrey. We are committed to educating the next generation of professionals and leaders, and to providing thought leadership and innovation to address global challenges and contribute to a better tomorrow for the world.