Hepatitis E virus infections can be life threatening and transmitted through blood products
April 12, 2018, Paris, France: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is once again in the spotlight, with two studies presented today at The International Liver Congress™ 2018 in Paris, France challenging the ideas that HEV infections are benign and self-limiting, and that blood-borne transmission is a rare event. Researchers from Hamburg and Hannover in Germany collaborating on these studies have demonstrated that HEV infections can be fatal in immunocompromised, and in some cases, immune-competent individuals. They also demonstrated that blood products are an important source of infection in those who are immunosuppressed.
Hepatitis E virus infection is one of the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide,8,9 with two main genotypes (genotypes 1 and 3) affecting humans.10 Genotype 1 predominates in low-income countries and is transmitted via the faecal-oral route, while genotype 3 predominates in high-income countries and has been linked to the consumption of contaminated pork or shellfish products.8 The reported incidence of HEV infection has been increasing steadily across Europe, with more than 21,000 cases reported in a recently evaluated decade (2005-2015).8
In a large observational study presented this week in Paris, 150 HEV RNA-positive individuals were identified retrospectively from the records of two tertiary referral hospitals and transplant centres in Northern Germany. Of the 69 immune-competent individuals identified, 37 (53%) were hospitalized for a total of 74 days, and two of these individuals who had preexisting liver disease died after developing acute-on-chronic liver failure. Eight (10%) immunosuppressed patients died within 5 years of being diagnosed with HEV infection, with three of these deaths considered to be related to the HEV infection.
'We have shown in this study that HEV infection can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and that a severe disease course is not limited to those who are immunocompromised', said Dr Sven Pischke from the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. 'Based on these findings, we urge all hepatologists to consider HEV as a differential diagnosis in any patient who presents with acute-on-chronic liver failure'. The second study involved a retrospective analysis of data from 37 immunosuppressed patients with HEV infection. Eleven of these patients (30%) developed chronic HEV infection and, in four of these individuals (36%), the source of infection could be traced to an HEV-positive blood donation. Two of these patients were heart transplant recipients who had been treated with a combination of plasmapheresis and rituximab for humoral rejection.
'The number of notified transfusion-transmitted HEV infections has so far been relatively low, probably due to under-reporting and under-recognition', said Dr Dirk Westhölter from the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, who presented the study findings today. 'This study confirms that blood products are an important source of HEV infection for immunosuppressed individuals and it has led us to recommend HEV RNA screening of all blood products destined for transplant or immunosuppressed patients'.
'Both studies emphasize the severity of hepatitis E virus infection in vulnerable patients', said Prof. Markus Cornberg from the Hannover Medical School, Germany, and EASL Governing Board Member. 'Acute infection needs to be prevented by all measures in patients with advanced liver disease, and in immunocompromised patients. Blood products can be an important source of transmission. These studies will lead to further discussions around if and how HEV screening of blood products should be carried out'.
About The International Liver Congress™
This annual congress is the biggest event in the EASL calendar, attracting scientific and medical experts from around the world to learn about the latest in liver research. Attending specialists present, share, debate and conclude on the latest science and research in hepatology, working to enhance the treatment and management of liver disease in clinical practice. This year, the congress is expected to attract approximately 10,000 delegates from all corners of the globe. The International Liver Congress™ 2018 will take place from 11¬-15 April 2018 at the Paris Convention Centre, Paris, France.
About The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL)
Since its foundation in 1966, this not-for-profit organization has grown to over 4,000 members from all over the world, including many of the leading hepatologists in Europe and beyond. EASL is the leading liver association in Europe, having evolved into a major European association with international influence, and with an impressive track record in promoting research in liver disease, supporting wider education and promoting changes in European liver policy.
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Onsite location reference
Session title: Poster
Time, date and location of session: 14. April 2018, 09:00 AM – 05:00 PM & 12. April 2018, 05:30 PM – 05:45 PM
Presenters: Johannes Hartl (4850) and Dirk Westhölter (4598), Germany
Abstracts: Clinical impact, morbidity and mortality of hepatitis E at tertiary referral centres in central Europe (Location: Poster area) and Cases of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus infections at a tertiary referral center (Location: West 2)
None reported in relation to the presented studies.
8. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Hepatitis E in the EU/EEA, 2005-2015. Baseline assessment of testing, diagnosis, surveillance and epidemiology. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/hepatitis-e-eueea-2005-2015. Last accessed: February 2018.
9. Van der Poel WHM, et al. Knowledge gaps and research priorities in the prevention and control of hepatitis E virus infection. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018;doi: 10.1111/tbed.12760 [Epub ahead of print].
10. World Health Organization. Hepatitis E Factsheet. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs280/en/. Last accessed: February 2018.