March 17, 2022—Hispanic/Latino youths with limited access to nutritionally adequate food – and especially those whose parents were foreign-born — had worse cardiometabolic profiles than their “food secure” counterparts, according to a study published in Pediatrics. Until now, little was known about the role of food insecurity on youths’ physical health.
Given the increase in food insecurity that resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for Hispanic/Latino immigrant families, these findings may also foreshadow concerning trends for the health and well-being of Hispanic/Latino youth, noted the researchers from Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, University of Southern California, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Harvard University, San Diego State University, and Einstein College of Medicine.
Previous studies have shown that food insecurity in adults was associated with cardiometabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Food insecurity affects about 14 percent of households with youths, a disproportionate number of whom are Hispanic/Latino.
The researchers sought to determine whether food insecurity among Hispanic/Latino youth is associated with metabolic syndrome and other cardiometabolic markers, including waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
They analyzed data from 1,325 Hispanic/Latino youths ages 8-16 years participating in the Hispanic Community Children’s Health Study/Study of Latino Youth, which began with a baseline clinic visit between 2012 and 2014. Study participants were recruited from the Bronx, N.Y., Chicago, Miami and San Diego.
Household and child food insecurity were assessed using the U.S. Department of Agriculture 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module.
Results showed youths in the lowest household and child food security categories had significantly worse HDL-C levels than those with high food security. Low/very low child food security was also associated with greater FG, TGs and metabolic syndrome than high child food security.
In addition, findings were strongest among youth with foreign-born parents/caregivers and whose families did not receive any food assistance in the previous year.
“Nutrition policies are needed to improve Hispanic/Latino families’ access to food assistance programs, and we call on health care providers to consider early screening for food insecurity to identify youths who may benefit from additional resources,” observed the authors.
“As food prices continue to rise as a consequence of the pandemic and other world events, it will be important to develop interventions to more effectively address food insecurity,” said senior author Sandra Albrecht, PhD, assistant professor of Epidemiology at Columbia Mailman School of Public Health. “Our findings suggest that this will be especially important for households that may not qualify for federal aid.”
Co-authors are Luis E. Maldonado, University of Southern California; Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Josiemer Mattei, Harvard University; Krista M. Perreira, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Amanda C. McClain, San Diego State University; Linda C. Gallo, San Diego State University; and Carmen R. Isasi, Einstein College of Medicine.
The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants R01HL102130, T32HL129969, K01DK107791, and R24HD050924).
Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health
Founded in 1922, the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health pursues an agenda of research, education, and service to address the critical and complex public health issues affecting New Yorkers, the nation and the world. The Columbia Mailman School is the fourth largest recipient of NIH grants among schools of public health. Its nearly 300 multi-disciplinary faculty members work in more than 100 countries around the world, addressing such issues as preventing infectious and chronic diseases, environmental health, maternal and child health, health policy, climate change and health, and public health preparedness. It is a leader in public health education with more than 1,300 graduate students from 55 nations pursuing a variety of master’s and doctoral degree programs. The Columbia Mailman School is also home to numerous world-renowned research centers, including ICAP and the Center for Infection and Immunity. For more information, please visit www.mailman.columbia.edu.